L1-Definitions

overviewassayneuro & ageingdefinitionsneuro & fliesstatistics

Symptoms

  • akinesia – loss of voluntary movement (inability to move; greek kinesis, meaning “motion”)
  • bradykinesia – slow movement (slow movement, greek bradys, “slow”)
  • cognitive – relating to the ability for perception and understanding
  • chorea – jerky and uncontrollable movements
  • dementia – a collection of symptoms including memory loss, personality changes, and impaired cognition; for further explanations see here.
  • psychosis – includes delusions and hallucinations
  • risk factors – something which makes an individual more likely to get a certain disease
  • tremor – involuntary shivering movement

Biology and disease characteristics

  • amyloid plaque – a build-up of misfolded proteins (in the majority beta-amyloid) that forms outside of the cells
  • assay – a method of analysis
  • codon – a unit of DNA made up of three bases (a combination of ATGC) which encodes a specific amino acid
  • extracellular – outside of the cell
  • Lewy bodies – a protein build-up outside the cell mostly made up of alpha-synulclein
  • mitochondria – an organelle responsible for respiration in cells
  • neurofibrillary tangles – a build-up of tau protein aggregates within cells; tau normally binds to filamentous structures called microtubules which form the highways of cellular transport of materials, and when this function is affected neurons become malfunctional.
  • pathological – adjective relating to changes that occur because of a disease
  • trinucleotide – see codon

Brain anatomy

  • axon – the cable-like projection of a nerve cell which conducts nerve impulses within the nervous system or between the nervous system and the body; these cables are the essential element of nerves
  • cholinergic neurons – a nerve cell which uses the chemical neurotransmitter substance acetylcholine to transmit signals to other nerve cells or muscles
  • dopaminergic neurons – a nerve cell which uses the chemical neurotransmitter substance dopamine to send signals to other nerve cells
  • gyri – ridges in the folds of the cerebral cortex (the outer layer/surface of the brain)
    Motor neuron – a nerve cell which sends signals from the brain to the muscles of the body, telling them to move
  • striatum – a part of the lower brain (located close to the neck region) responsible for coordinating movements
  • sulci – depressions in the folds of the cerebral cortex (the outer layer/surface of the brain)
  • ventricles – cavities within the brain, filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which continue into a canal that runs all the way down through the spinal cord
overviewassayneuro & ageingdefinitionsneuro & fliesstatistics

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